The city is located at 36.20º North latitude and 59.35º East longitude, in the valley of the Kashaf River near Turkmenistan, between the two mountain ranges of Binalood and Hezar-masjed. The city benefits from the proximity of the mountains, having cool winters, pleasant springs, mild summers, and beautiful autumns. It is only about 250 km (160 mi) from Ashgabat,Turkmenistan.
Mashhad has a steppe climate with warm summers and cold winters and low precipitation figures all year round. Almost all precipitation falls during the winter and during early spring. During the coldest days of the year precipitation falls in the form of snow. Summers are warm with average temperatures above 30 degrees Celsius (86.0 degrees Fahrenheit). However, real extremes in temperatures such as temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) are uncommon. Winters may be extremely cold. The coldest temperature on record is -28 degrees Celsius (-18.4 degrees Fahrenheit). However, during the winter average temperatures are just above freezing point.